Castiglione was born in Naples, Italy. He moved to Paris early in his career and is thought to have studied painting there. He started exhibiting his paintings in Paris and Turin. He was a member of the Societaire des Artistes and was awarded Honorable Mention at the 1861 Salon Exhibition. He was awarded a medal at the Salon Exhibition of 1869. At the Exposition Universelle of 1900, Castiglione was awarded a Bronze Medal. He was decorated with the Legion d'honneur in 1893. Castiglione was best known as a genre and portrait painter.